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Centre for Health Economics -
Pay for Performance (P4P) arrangements, which are fixtures of health systems in high-income countries (HIC), have been deployed across many low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings as well. P4P programs in HICs have typically addressed the challenge of ‘over delivery’, controlling costs while maintaining adequate services and getting the best clinical practice, or quality of care. In LMICs, health systems are similarly concerned with issues of quality, but they may also grapple with problems of low demand, lack of resources and poor governance. This paper draws on experiences with P4P in HIC to assess how the insights from economic theory apply in practice in LMICs.
NHS Clinical Commissioners -
This report showcases how clinical leaders in England’s core cities - the eight largest cities outside of London - are looking at how the services they commission can improve not only the health but social and economic wellbeing of their populations. The report finds that in these areas, clinical commissioners are working with a wide range of partners to go beyond traditional boundaries to combat health inequalities and social exclusion, increase skills and employment and to attract inward investment to help realise the potential of their local economies.
Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) -
This report recommends that the NHS emulates the best elements of various European health care systems, whilst retaining universal health care access, in order to improve the quality of care and performance. Proposals include opening the market to both non-profit and for-profit insurers, and the introduction of tax rebates for patients wishing to opt out of NHS care.